5:59 am - Sunday February 17, 2019

EKATMA MANAVAVADA : VEDANTA DARSANA : Pt. DEENDAYALA UPADHYAYA

 

EKATMA MANAVAVADA : VEDANTA DARSANA : Pt. DEENDAYALA UPADHYAYA

Ramakant Tiwari

 

Pt. Deendayala Upadhyaya  was one of the most incisive strategic thinkers in the country. His extra-ordinary genius lay in picking up all salient verticals of nation’s history and heritage, entire wisdom enshrined in Sanatana  scriptures, narrations of ancient Rsi-s and Maharsi-s, fundamentals of cultural values, then proceeded to methodically weave an economic / political / social philosophy for the nation that is now turning out to be a formidable alternative to western capitalism and eastern socialism. It is more appropriate to say, last resort of refuge for the world when all other philosophies have miserably collapsed across the world. In years and decades to come, Pt. Upadhyaya  may even surpass Keynes / Milton Friedman / Adams / Karl Marx in so far as accuracy, vision and foresightedness of his socio-economic philosophy are concerned. Probably it was for the first time that an exhibition was launched on such a wide scale in Nehru Memorial Museum & Library on the occasion of his 99th birth anniversary to highlight his vision, thoughts and solution to the problems being encountered in the country.

We have our own unique ethos and no foreign ideology is capable of satisfying our ideological thirst or sort out our issues without causing attrition and friction. Nation’s fundamental identity is sacrosanct and inviolable while overseas ideologies are not universal. Moreover, no nation can ignore their history and Bharatiya  culture is an integrated one visualising entire world as a Universal Human Family in the spirit of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakuma. Perfect harmony is inevitable among all varying mutables within every individual, family, society and nation. Overseas ideologies are neither all encompassing nor grounded to the core values originating from the Absolute Oneness.    

Pt. Upadhyaya  was member of RSS, founder of Bharatiya Jana Sangha  which later metamorphosed into Bharatiya Janata  Party and formulated his socio-economic philosophy in the name of Ekatma Manavavada  i.e. Integral Humanism. Draft of the philosophy was extensively debated in Jan. 1965 by Pritinidhi Sabha  of Bharatiya Jana Sangha  held in Vijayawada. He later expounded it vividly in a series of lectures delivered in Mumbai and Pune.  

Ekatma Manavavada  is the practical aspect of Vedanta Darsana, Supreme Wisdom expounded by Avatara-s, Rsi-s and Maharsi-s spanning thousands of years. If cost effective technology / manufacturing are practical aspects of study of engineering without which technical knowledge is worthless, surgery and medical treatment are practical aspects of study of medical science without which medical science itself is worthless, Ekatma Manavavada  is the practical / applicable aspect of Vedanta Darsana  without which serious question marks would be raised on the authenticity of Vedanta Darsana  itself. As soon as existence of Atma  and Paramatma  is established and accepted, Dharma  springs into existence spontaneously to define intra-Atma, inter-Atma  and AtmaParamatma  relationships and related dimensions. Hence Dharma  is the foundation and cornerstone of not only existence of Jivatma  in the world but also how Jivatma  and Paramatma  would interact with each other. Yato Dharmaha Tato Jayaha  and Satyameva Jayate  are the cardinal principles that lay down rules to govern our lives in the world, society, family and country.  

Dharma  is enigmatic as it encapsulates a mysticism of it’s own unique kind nowhere else found. And it is divine too. Every member of family, society, country in various positions of authority and compliance, have a unique Dharma  to follow guided and governed by the situation, responsibilities assigned and accountability mandated. Same is valid with the head of state too. As all Atma-s are equal before Paramatma  barring Karma  performed by them individually, all human beings are equal before law, enjoy the right to equal opportunity barring individual attributes, merits and endeavour undertaken. In other words, everybody enjoys equal right to rule and be ruled over under the umbrella of Dharma  which is sacrosanct. That gives rise to democratic form of governance based on adult franchise strictly conforming to principles of Dharma  as sanctified in Vedanta Darsana. In DharmaRajya, he stated, “tolerance of and respect for all faiths and creeds is an essential feature. Freedom of worship and conscience is guaranteed to all and the state does not discriminate against any one on grounds of religion, either in the formation of policy or in it’s implementation. It is a non-sectarian state and not a theocracy.” Indeed, Dharma Rajya  is a manifest of the sacrosanct ideal of Satyameva Jayate.

Nation is the Soul of a country while state constitutes body / clothes. Dharma  is the Soul of a nation while state, it’s overall governance. While Dharma  is all pervasive, faith / religion neutral, state brooks no discrimination against anyone on the basis of caste, creed or conviction if guided and governed by Dharma. So long as Dharma  is adhered to, state would never degenerate into totalitarianism, arbitrariness or mobocracy. Democratic rights under Dharma  allow every individual to achieve his / her maximum potential, live with honour and dignity. Just as Dharma  is infinite and indivisible, democracy guided by Dharma  too, is unmitigated and unrestrained, “In fact, democracy is indivisible. It cannot be viewed in fragments. Absence of democracy in any one sphere is bound to affect growth of democracy in the rest. Tolerance, dignity of the individual and a feeling of identification with the demos, the people – these are the essentials of democracy. Without these, mere paraphernalia of democracy would be purposeless.” Similarly various identifiable aspects of democracy viz. adult franchise, equality of opportunity etc. must function in complete harmony with one another, “Efforts have to be made to ensure that all these rights complement one another and do not detract from the other’s effect.”     

Ekatma Manavavada  is the philosophy whose time has come howsoever ludicrous may be the response of Congress and CPM. Government of the day is influenced by the doctrine to ensure, equal opportunities to excel, for all. Pt. Deendayala Upadhyaya  was neither a Rightist nor was he a Leftist nor Centrist. He was an ardent EQUAL-IST advocating, all are equal and equal opportunity for all. As is said in scriptures –

Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinaha, Sarve Santu Niramayaha  I

Sarve Bhadrani Pasyantu, Ma Kascid Duhkhbhagbhavet  II

i.e. may everyone be blissed, may everyone be healthy, immediately gives rise to the concept of Antyodaya, a socio-economic welfare programme to look after last member of the social hierarchy. Concept of Antyodaya  has led to formulation of a plethora of schemes to uplift poorest of the poor which are now a matter of envy for the large army of capitalists and socialists across the world. Western capitalism allows unmitigated liberty to private enterprise, degenerating into ‘Survival of the Fittest’, excessive consumerism, profligacy and destruction. On the contrary, Marxism belongs to the other extreme of wisdom which advocates excessive state control over resources and initiatives leading to return of stone age civilisation. For both of them, human body is the end instead of being means to an end to be discovered later. Ekatma Manavavada  alone is the socio-economic philosophy in the world that is dynamically ALL INCLUSIVE in true sense of the term.

Doctrine of Ekatma Manavavada  has never been against western science or state control where it is inevitable. Though these were at the peak of their respective glories during lifetime of Pt. Upadhyaya  yet these failed to even scratch him on surface not to speak of being overwhelmed as had been the case with so many others. With great courage of conviction, he questioned them and proved their superficiality before the nation. He argued that values and verticals of Vedanta Darsana  have always been modern and a state established on those never faded away into obsolescence. Always it rejuvenated and refurbished itself with changing times with augmented relevance while the core remained the same incessantly, “We shall have to end a number of traditions and set in reforms which are helpful in the development of values and of national unity in our society. We shall remove those traditions that obstruct this process.”

Finally, Ekatma Manavavada  explicitly expounds, nation always survives while State may change often. Nation continues while boundaries of State continue to be defined and re-defined. Vedic  scriptures elaborate in detail how in the era of Treta Yuga, nation functioned very well in spite of complete absence State at all ! In the history of Bharata, nation survived all foreign invasions and transfer of regimes while state collapsed several times owing to congeries of factors. State could rise again and again with renewed vigour only because the nation hidden was intact as we took care of the nation even at the cost of state sometimes.

Thus, Ekatma Manavavada  is the landmark philosophical doctrine which begins with “Aham Brahmasmi” i.e. “I am Brahma” and concludes with “Vayam Brahmasmaha” i.e. “We ALL are Brahma.”

                                                                                                                                                                    Ramakant Tiwari

Pt. Deendayala Upadhyaya  was one of the most incisive strategic thinkers in the country. His extra-ordinary genius lay in picking up all salient verticals of nation’s history and heritage, entire wisdom enshrined in Sanatana  scriptures, narrations of ancient Rsi-s and Maharsi-s, fundamentals of cultural values, then proceeded to methodically weave an economic / political / social philosophy for the nation that is now turning out to be a formidable alternative to western capitalism and eastern socialism. It is more appropriate to say, last resort of refuge for the world when all other philosophies have miserably collapsed across the world. In years and decades to come, Pt. Upadhyaya  may even surpass Keynes / Milton Friedman / Adams / Karl Marx in so far as accuracy, vision and foresightedness of his socio-economic philosophy are concerned. Probably it was for the first time that an exhibition was launched on such a wide scale in Nehru Memorial Museum & Library on the occasion of his 99th birth anniversary to highlight his vision, thoughts and solution to the problems being encountered in the country.

We have our own unique ethos and no foreign ideology is capable of satisfying our ideological thirst or sort out our issues without causing attrition and friction. Nation’s fundamental identity is sacrosanct and inviolable while overseas ideologies are not universal. Moreover, no nation can ignore their history and Bharatiya  culture is an integrated one visualising entire world as a Universal Human Family in the spirit of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakuma. Perfect harmony is inevitable among all varying mutables within every individual, family, society and nation. Overseas ideologies are neither all encompassing nor grounded to the core values originating from the Absolute Oneness.    

Pt. Upadhyaya  was member of RSS, founder of Bharatiya Jana Sangha  which later metamorphosed into Bharatiya Janata  Party and formulated his socio-economic philosophy in the name of Ekatma Manavavada  i.e. Integral Humanism. Draft of the philosophy was extensively debated in Jan. 1965 by Pritinidhi Sabha  of Bharatiya Jana Sangha  held in Vijayawada. He later expounded it vividly in a series of lectures delivered in Mumbai and Pune.  

Ekatma Manavavada  is the practical aspect of Vedanta Darsana, Supreme Wisdom expounded by Avatara-s, Rsi-s and Maharsi-s spanning thousands of years. If cost effective technology / manufacturing are practical aspects of study of engineering without which technical knowledge is worthless, surgery and medical treatment are practical aspects of study of medical science without which medical science itself is worthless, Ekatma Manavavada  is the practical / applicable aspect of Vedanta Darsana  without which serious question marks would be raised on the authenticity of Vedanta Darsana  itself. As soon as existence of Atma  and Paramatma  is established and accepted, Dharma  springs into existence spontaneously to define intra-Atma, inter-Atma  and AtmaParamatma  relationships and related dimensions. Hence Dharma  is the foundation and cornerstone of not only existence of Jivatma  in the world but also how Jivatma  and Paramatma  would interact with each other. Yato Dharmaha Tato Jayaha  and Satyameva Jayate  are the cardinal principles that lay down rules to govern our lives in the world, society, family and country.  

Dharma  is enigmatic as it encapsulates a mysticism of it’s own unique kind nowhere else found. And it is divine too. Every member of family, society, country in various positions of authority and compliance, have a unique Dharma  to follow guided and governed by the situation, responsibilities assigned and accountability mandated. Same is valid with the head of state too. As all Atma-s are equal before Paramatma  barring Karma  performed by them individually, all human beings are equal before law, enjoy the right to equal opportunity barring individual attributes, merits and endeavour undertaken. In other words, everybody enjoys equal right to rule and be ruled over under the umbrella of Dharma  which is sacrosanct. That gives rise to democratic form of governance based on adult franchise strictly conforming to principles of Dharma  as sanctified in Vedanta Darsana. In DharmaRajya, he stated, “tolerance of and respect for all faiths and creeds is an essential feature. Freedom of worship and conscience is guaranteed to all and the state does not discriminate against any one on grounds of religion, either in the formation of policy or in it’s implementation. It is a non-sectarian state and not a theocracy.” Indeed, Dharma Rajya  is a manifest of the sacrosanct ideal of Satyameva Jayate.

Nation is the Soul of a country while state constitutes body / clothes. Dharma  is the Soul of a nation while state, it’s overall governance. While Dharma  is all pervasive, faith / religion neutral, state brooks no discrimination against anyone on the basis of caste, creed or conviction if guided and governed by Dharma. So long as Dharma  is adhered to, state would never degenerate into totalitarianism, arbitrariness or mobocracy. Democratic rights under Dharma  allow every individual to achieve his / her maximum potential, live with honour and dignity. Just as Dharma  is infinite and indivisible, democracy guided by Dharma  too, is unmitigated and unrestrained, “In fact, democracy is indivisible. It cannot be viewed in fragments. Absence of democracy in any one sphere is bound to affect growth of democracy in the rest. Tolerance, dignity of the individual and a feeling of identification with the demos, the people – these are the essentials of democracy. Without these, mere paraphernalia of democracy would be purposeless.” Similarly various identifiable aspects of democracy viz. adult franchise, equality of opportunity etc. must function in complete harmony with one another, “Efforts have to be made to ensure that all these rights complement one another and do not detract from the other’s effect.”     

Ekatma Manavavada  is the philosophy whose time has come howsoever ludicrous may be the response of Congress and CPM. Government of the day is influenced by the doctrine to ensure, equal opportunities to excel, for all. Pt. Deendayala Upadhyaya  was neither a Rightist nor was he a Leftist nor Centrist. He was an ardent EQUAL-IST advocating, all are equal and equal opportunity for all. As is said in scriptures –

Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinaha, Sarve Santu Niramayaha  I

Sarve Bhadrani Pasyantu, Ma Kascid Duhkhbhagbhavet  II

i.e. may everyone be blissed, may everyone be healthy, immediately gives rise to the concept of Antyodaya, a socio-economic welfare programme to look after last member of the social hierarchy. Concept of Antyodaya  has led to formulation of a plethora of schemes to uplift poorest of the poor which are now a matter of envy for the large army of capitalists and socialists across the world. Western capitalism allows unmitigated liberty to private enterprise, degenerating into ‘Survival of the Fittest’, excessive consumerism, profligacy and destruction. On the contrary, Marxism belongs to the other extreme of wisdom which advocates excessive state control over resources and initiatives leading to return of stone age civilisation. For both of them, human body is the end instead of being means to an end to be discovered later. Ekatma Manavavada  alone is the socio-economic philosophy in the world that is dynamically ALL INCLUSIVE in true sense of the term.

Doctrine of Ekatma Manavavada  has never been against western science or state control where it is inevitable. Though these were at the peak of their respective glories during lifetime of Pt. Upadhyaya  yet these failed to even scratch him on surface not to speak of being overwhelmed as had been the case with so many others. With great courage of conviction, he questioned them and proved their superficiality before the nation. He argued that values and verticals of Vedanta Darsana  have always been modern and a state established on those never faded away into obsolescence. Always it rejuvenated and refurbished itself with changing times with augmented relevance while the core remained the same incessantly, “We shall have to end a number of traditions and set in reforms which are helpful in the development of values and of national unity in our society. We shall remove those traditions that obstruct this process.”

Finally, Ekatma Manavavada  explicitly expounds, nation always survives while State may change often. Nation continues while boundaries of State continue to be defined and re-defined. Vedic  scriptures elaborate in detail how in the era of Treta Yuga, nation functioned very well in spite of complete absence State at all ! In the history of Bharata, nation survived all foreign invasions and transfer of regimes while state collapsed several times owing to congeries of factors. State could rise again and again with renewed vigour only because the nation hidden was intact as we took care of the nation even at the cost of state sometimes.

Thus, Ekatma Manavavada  is the landmark philosophical doctrine which begins with “Aham Brahmasmi” i.e. “I am Brahma” and concludes with “Vayam Brahmasmaha” i.e. “We ALL are Brahma.”

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